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Archives for : #ईकबाड़ी

Warm winter 2015-16 : Blame it on El Nino effect

THE El Nino that has often been the bane of the Indian monsoon is also the reason for the unusually warm winter season this year. Average temperatures across the country, except in Jammu and Kashmir and some adjoining areas, are about 4 to 5 degrees above normal and scientists say the prevailing El Nino in the Pacific Ocean must be held responsible.
El Nino refers to a condition in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Ecuador and Peru in South America, in which sea surface temperatures become unusually warm. The warmer ocean temperatures are the reason behind several weather events worldwide, and are known to suppress the Indian monsoon as well.
Arvind Kumar Srivastava, former head of the National Climate Centre in Pune, said it is not unusual to find winter temperature following an El Nino event to be slightly “milder” than normal. He said the 2009-2010 winter, which followed an El Nino event, was also not very cold. “But the current El Nino has been very strong and prolonged. So its impact is being felt in a more forceful manner,” said Srivastava, now the director of the meteorological centre in Jaipur.
In fact, the prevailing El Nino, which is likely to stretch till early summer this year, is one of the strongest in recent times. The January 4 ‘El Nino Advisory’ from the Climate Prediction System of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States says the expectation was that the current El Nino event “will rank among the three strongest episodes” since 1950.
It has already resulted in one of the lowest monsoon rainfalls in recent years this season. And now it could be resulting in a warmer winter. J Srinivasan of the Divecha Centre for Climate Change at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, said the strength of El Nino could be accounting for about 1 to 2 degree rise over the normal temperatures at this time of the year.
There are other, more local, factors as well that are contributing to the unusually high temperatures this winter. Primary amongst them is the lack of rain. The last week of December and first week of January generally see rainfall through most of north India, including Delhi. But this year there has been no rain in this period in most parts of the country.
In the last week of December, the country as a whole received rainfall that was 86 per cent below normal. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jammu and Kashmir received some rainfall but rest of the country was completely dry.
Scientists blame the prevailing, unusual, atmospheric conditions for this. Rain at this time, at least in northern India, is brought by the ‘westerlies’, a system of wind that moves in the mid-latitudes, 30 to 60 degrees, in northern hemisphere from the west to east direction. These winds move slightly southwards during this time and flow through most of northern and central India.
“But this year, they have remained north of their usual position during this time and as such their zone of influence has only been parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh where we have seen a little bit of rain,” said L S Rathore, director general of the Indian Meteorological Department.
– Written by Amitabh Sinha

Creative Reuse of Cardboard ..

Although people have lived on and around cardboard for as long as it has existed, it was probably first introduced to the design world by Frank Gehry (b. 1929). in sahpe of modern chairs and tables. Made with hidden screws and fiberboard edging, the tables are said to hold thousands of pounds. The “Wiggle Chair,” which has won many design awards and has been included in museum shows at London’s Design Museum and elsewhere, contains 60 layers of corrugated cardboard held together by hidden screws and fibreboard edging.

In the Beginning of the 1980s cardboard furniture becomes very popular in France by the technique of Eric Guiomar. It is totally different to the technique of Frank Gehry. The furniture in the technique of Guiomar is made with corrugated cardboard, simple, double and triple groove. First, a frame is created with intertwined cardboard plates which are cut out according to the original design. This is the support frame of the piece, just like it would be the case for a ship. Then, the frame is covered with cardboard that will be “rolled” on its forms to a perfect fit. This technique allows a great freedom in the choice of shapes and materials.

All of us need to understand the importance of Reduce Reuse & Recycle ..

Air Pollution in Delhi ..

A study on air pollution in Delhi has found that the city suffers from a toxic blend of geography, growth, poor energy sources and unfavorable weather that boosts its dangerously high levels of air pollution. The study also recommends all-round solutions instead of just focusing on vehicular pollution. The team researched how Delhi’s landscape, weather, smoke from neighboring cities burning crops or leaves being burnt in Delhi, energy consumption culture, and growing urban population combines to elevate concentrations of air pollutants, including ultra-fine particles, the most harmful to human health. “Air pollution has been placed in the top ten health risks faced by human beings globally. Delhi has the dubious accolade of being regularly cited as the most polluted city in the world, with air pollution causing thousands of excess deaths in a year in this growing megacity. While it might be easy to blame this on increased use of vehicles, industrial production or a growing population, the truth is that Delhi is a toxic pollutant punchbowl with myriad ingredients, all of which need addressing. Classified as the world’s fifth ‘megacity’, Delhi has a population of “25.8 million”, which continues to grow. With this growth, the study predicted that the number of road vehicles would increase from 4.7 million in 2010 to nearly 26 million by 2030. The total energy consumption in Delhi has risen 57 per cent from 2001 to 2011, said researchers. According to the report, as a landlocked megacity, Delhi has limited avenues for flushing polluted air out of the city. Coastal megacities such as Mumbai have at least a chance to ‘replace’ polluted air with relatively unpolluted sea breezes, whereas Delhi’s surrounding regions are sometimes even more polluted than the city. “The picture of Delhi’s pollution problem is complicated and is aggravated by some factors that are out of human control. An all-round effort needs to put in if this ever growing issues has to be solved.